Some of the radioactive elements used in dating and their decay products their stable daughter isotopes are uranium to lead, uranium to lead, uranium to thorium, thorium to lead, samarium to neodymium, rubidium to strontium, and potassium to argon Gove, H. South African Archaeological Bulletin Absolute Dating Absolute dating can be achieved through the use of historical records and through the analysis of biological and geological patterns resulting from annual climatic variations, such as tree rings dendrochronology and varve analysis. Dating Techniques for the Archaeologist.
Nature, References Cited Aitken, Martin J. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Radiocarbon Dating. Taylor University of California at Riverside. Radiocarbon User's Handbook.